STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY & DIVERSITY
ROOT CAUSE of STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY, SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONS and DISASTER THAT SOCIAL DARWINISM BROUGHT to HUMANITY WITH a FOCUS on the RACIAL OPPRESSION of ABORIGINAL and BLACK PEOPLE in the UNITED STATES
The work of Jeffrey R. Dafler (2005) entitled: “Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia’s Stolen Generations” stats that “Alfred Korzybski often encapsulated the main idea of abstracting as formulated in the discipline of general semantics by stating that ‘the map is not the territory, and the map does not represent all of the territory.’ Dafler explains that ‘territory’ was defined by Samuel Bois as ‘what is going on’ (WIGO), the realm of external phenomena experienced by an individual.” (2005) Therefore, to the individual “the map is the individual’s abstraction of that experience.” (Dafler, 2005) it was posited in the work of Korzybski that “human status as ‘time-binders’ sets them apart from other life forms and that it forms the basis for the structure of culture. By accumulating abstractions over time and drawing further abstractions from that collective body, individuals actually create their own realities or ‘worlds’.” (Dafler, 2005)
II. HIGHER-ORDER ABSTRACTIONS of EXPERIENCE & TIME-BINDING
According to Bois “the nature of abstracting is such that the worlds of two individuals will never perfectly overlap, although it is possible for individuals to share some meaning: ‘In human affairs, it is the sharing values and common adherence to their requirements that make understanding and cooperation possible.'” (Dafler, 2005) it is this value-sharing among individuals that produce the symbols of interaction used in this exchange of “their higher-order abstractions of experience.” (Dafler, 2005) Dafler goes on to explain “In this sense, the discipline of general semantics envisions culture as a framework of shared meaning arrived at through symbolic social interaction, a perspective that shares certain elements with a group of theories that conceptualize meaning as socially created, such as Mead’ symbolic interactionism and Bormann’s theory of symbolic convergence.” (2005)
The concept of rhetorical vision which has been defined by Bormann as “a unified putting-together of the various scripts that gives the participants a broader view of things” is especially helpful in understanding this ‘shared understanding’ that occurs during interaction. Bormann refers to this as a ‘rhetorical community’ according to Dafler in the same manner “that the general semantics notion of shared abstractions can become the basis of culture through time-binding.” (2005) Time-binding can be understood to be the same as ‘traditions’ or ‘customs’ within society. Traditions and customs are given specialized authoritative meaning in a society therefore time-binding is defined much the same way.
Dafler states: “Culture, then, in a general semantics sense, can be viewed as the collective abstractions of a group time-binders based on the symbolic sharing of individual and sub-group abstractions over the course of generations.” (2005) Re-stated: Customs and traditions in culture, in terms of semantics “…can be viewed as the collective abstractions of a group time-binders based on the symbolic sharing of individual and sub-group abstractions over the course of generations.” (Dafler, 2005) These customs, traditions, time-binders are a “worldview or perspective on WIGO and influences both the collective and individual behavior.” (Dafler, 2005) Dafler notes that abstractions in culture shift across time in a “generational pace of time-binding” as well.
III. TIME-BINDING PROGRESS of the WESTERN WORLD
It is explained in the work of Dafler (2005) that Bois reviews “three conceptual revolutions that took place over the course of Western cultural development.” First stated was the “Greek conceptual revolution” which took place during 650 to 350 BC. This revolution was “driven by the work of the great Greek philosophers, including Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.” (Dafler, 2005) Secondly identified by Bois and related by Dafler (2005) was the “revolution of classical science” which occurred between 1500 and 1700 AD. The third and final cultural-revolution identified by Bois and related by Dafler (2005) was the “birth of modern science as the second conceptual revolution.” The “giants of the second conceptual revolution” are named in Dafler (2005) as: “Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Bacon.” It was the belief of Bois that “a third conceptual revolution was underway when he wrote the first edition of ‘The Art of Awareness” during the middle of the 20th century. This revolution was driven by Einstein, Russell, von Bertalanffy, and others, which “consisted of the radical restructuring of the scientific framework that emerged during the preceding centuries.” (Dafler, 2005)
IV. FOUR ELEMENTS SHARED in the CONCEPTUAL REVOLUTIONS of BOIS
Dafler (2005) relates that Bois posited that there were four basic elements shared by these ‘conceptual revolutions’ and states those four to be:
1) “A ‘radical change in the methods of thinking and valuing’;
2) a ‘concentration of great thinkers’;
3) the emergence of a ‘codifier, or system builder who made explicit the methods of thinking that were characteristic of this age; and 4) the appearance of ‘new terms in the general vocabulary’.” (Dafler, 2005)
Dafler writes that a ‘fifth element’ could be introduced that would integrate the “emergence and application of a new worldview in the sphere of economic, political and social relations through the interaction of individuals and groups using the new symbols of the conceptual revolution.” (Dafler, 2005) Dafler believes that “The Roman Empire could be viewed as fulfilling the need for the Greek conceptual revolution, because the Roman system in so many ways grew out of the intellectual framework established by earlier Greek philosophers.” (2005) Dafler states that the second conceptual revolution “only took root outside the realms of science and philosophy in the rapid political, social and economic change of the early and middle portions of the 19th century.” (2005) This is stated to be due to the advances of technology and the industrial revolution having “…swept away existing social structures, enabling emerging empires and Europe and around the world to acquire and control the resources now vital to the growth of wealth. Gone were the values and symbols of the feudalistic worldview based on patronage, protection, and divine right, replaced by the new concepts of free will, competition, and resource-based power.” (Dafler, 2005) Simultaneously “Charles Darwin was extending the new science to the realm of biology with his theory of evolution and natural selection, first presented comprehensively in his 1859 work “On the Origin of Species.” (2005)
The phrases ‘survival of the fittest’ and ‘struggle for existence’ were adopted in the public discourse along with “the social theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Herbert Spencer, and Ernst Haeckel…” all of who ranked the human races by a hierarchy of evolution. (Dafler, 2005; paraphrased) in this hierarchical arrangement of the human race “European and American social theorists placed fair-skinned people at the top of the evolutionary ladder. Those whose culture differed most from their own were identified as the least evolved and destined for extinction.” (Hawkins, Social Darwinism, p. 17; as cited in Dafler, 2005) Hawkins is stated to analyze the ‘rhetorical instrument’ of Social Darwinism insofar as the method of cultural abstraction by stating: “Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).” (Hawkins, Social Darwinism, p. 17; as cited in Dafler, 2005)
Hawkins discusses how European colonizers, and this must be true of those who colonized the Americas as well that they felt they were “merely fulfilling their destiny as members of a superior race, obligated by fate to rule over the inferior black races of the uncivilized world.” (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that Hawkins cited the work of Frederick Courtney Selous, a British colonialist instrumental in the establishment of Rhodesia “to illustrate this point.” The following is that cited by Hawkins:
Therefore Matabeleland [a part of the future colony of Rhodesia] is doomed by what seems a law of nature to be ruled by the white man, and the black man must go, or conform to the white man’s laws, or die in resisting them. It seems a hard and cruel fate for the black man, but it is a destiny which the broadest philanthropy cannot avert, whilst the British colonist is but the irresponsible atom employed in carrying out a preordained law — the law which has ruled upon this planet ever since, in the far-off misty depths of time, organic life was first evolved upon the earth — the inexorable law which Darwin has aptly termed the Survival of the Fittest.” (Hawkins, Social Darwinism, p.205; as cited in Dafler, 2005)
What was viewed as an ‘aboriginal problem was dealt with in Australia as well as to a great extent in America by taking children who were ‘half-caste’ or partially white and integrating them into society calling upon them to turn from their savagery and “embrace white society.” (Hawkins, Social Darwinism, p. 205; as cited in Dafler, 2005) From this view the aboriginal were inferior genetically in adherence to Social Darwinism and Eugenics the white ‘superior’ race would serve to dominate those of ‘inferior’ races and particularly in the mixed races viewed as greatly inferior genetic beings. This conception is more formally stated in official government documents “from the early 20th century in Australia.” (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were ‘half-caste’ “were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother’s arms, and transported directly to government and church missions.” (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation’ or ‘absorption’ towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: “Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an ‘inferior’ race and culture.” (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end.” (Beresford and Omaji, Our State of Mind; as cited in Dafler, 2005)
This example has been provided to demonstrate the “gross injustices that have been committed within the framework of the Social Darwinist worldview. Collective abstractions of racial ‘superiority’ and their behavioral manifestations have led to numerous great tragedies of similar dimension during the 19th and 20th centuries, resulting in the displacement and death of millions of people.” (Dafler, 2005) in conclusion Dafler relates: “The Australian government today embraces “multiculturalism” as its collective abstraction related to race relations. (35) What white Australians intend to convey through the symbolism of multiculturalism is a society where “diversity” is valued, even celebrated. The reality of Australian culture, however, seems much different.” (2005) the Social Darwinist manner of dealing with the native inhabitants of North America and the subsequent enslaving and importation of black men have much mirrored the progression of the treatment of the aboriginals of Australia.
The work of Katz, Stern, and Fader (2005) entitled: “Women and the Paradox of Economic Inequality in the Twentieth-Century” state: “Throughout American history, male/female has defined an enduring binary embodied in access to jobs, income, and wealth. Women’s economic history shows how for centuries sex has inscribed a durable inequality into the structure of American labor markets that civil and political rights have moderated but no removed. This economic experience of women reflects the paradox of inequality in America; the coexistence of structural inequality with individual and group mobility.” It is noted by Katz, Stern and Fader (2005) that T.H. Marshall related that “Women, like African-Americans, have gained ‘civil and political citizenship’ [as they] “are no longer disenfranchised, and discrimination on account of race and gender is against the law.” (Katz, Stern and Fader, 2005) in spite of this women in American society “earn less than men, end up in occupational ghettos, bump up against glass ceilings, and find themselves, in relation to men, as poor as ever.” (Katz, Stern, and Fader, 2005) Various contexts in society in terms of inequality such as in the “domestic, social, and political spheres” have served to shape women’s experiences.” (Katz, Stern, and Fader, 2005) Katz, Stern and Fader (2005) state that they examine inequality in relation to sex, race, ethnicity or age from four different points-of-view:
1) Participation – the share of women who work;
2) Distribution – the kinds of jobs women held;
3) Rewards – the relative income they received; and 4) Differentiation – the distance among women on scales of occupation and earnings.”
Katz, Stern and Fader state that: “The intersection of history and experience becomes even more vivid with women’s labor force participation considered by age cohorts.” (2005) Prior to the 20th century only a very few married women were employed however “among women born in 1915 and 1925 – mothers of the baby boom – the situation changed markedly. Many more of them worked, and their labor force participation increased until their late 40s of early 50s. At age 25, 20% of married women born in 1925 had entered market work – a fraction that swelled to 42% when they were 35 years old and 60% at age 34, when for the most part their children had left school.” (Katz, Stern, Fader, 2005) Among the women born in 1955 and 1965, 59% and 70% worked respectively and “these were the first cohorts to combine motherhood of young children with paid employment.” (Katz, Stern and Fader, 2005)
Stated to play a “key role in the surge of married women into the workforce” was education and this because of: “…the increased number of jobs that demanded advanced education – health care…” is given as one example. These inequalities can be viewed in the financial arena clearly and for example in the banking function. Katz, Stern and Fader state: “Banking had been a traditional man’s domain for two reasons, sex stereotypes about women’s interests and mental capacities and the physical demands of the job:
Men handled financial matters because it was assumed that women were not interested in such activities and furthermore women’s minds were incapable of and unaccustomed to what was referred to as, ‘doing figuring’ and making financial transactions. Since [the] early medium of exchanges included heavy gold and silver commodities as well as currency, women were presumably unable to handle such heavy items. Moreover, large posting and accounting books used in banking were presumed difficult for women to lift.” (Jane E. Prather, 1971; as cited in Katz, Stern and Fader, 2005)
Katz, Stern and Fader (2005) state: “The historical record is clearer about how exploitation and opportunity hoarding shaped women’s inequality in the twentieth-century than it is about the role of emulation and adaptation. Exploitation took various forms: rules that prohibited the employment of married women, actions by labor unions concerned with preserving male family wages, hegemonic cultural ideas that assigned married women to domestic labor while devaluing the kinds of market work they performed…” (Katz, Stern and Fader, 2005) Katz, Stern and Fader conclude by stating that powerful lessons may be found within this “history of the paradox of inequality.” (2005) the most obvious is stated to be “access –political and civil citizenship — is not enough. Access promotes individual and group interests but does little to diminish the structures of inequality.
Waters and Eschbach (1995) in the work entitled: “Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States” relates that “The half century since the close of World War II has seen numerous changes to the face of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States, while the problem of inequality has endured. When Myrdal published an American (1944) the segregationism tolerated by Plessy v. Ferguson was the law of the land, and caste-like barriers separated black from whites.” (Waters and Eschbach, 1995) it is additionally related by Waters and Eschbach (1995) that Scholars who study ethnicity are in general agreement that racial and ethnic categories are social constructions rather than natural entities that are simply ‘out there’ in the world.” The most disadvantaged of major American ethnic categories on census measures of poverty and educational attainment is stated by Waters and Eschbach to be American Indians and they state that “…the persistence of the social significance of Native American ethnic category 500 years after Columbus’ voyage is evidence that ethnic distinctions may in some cases be durable.” (2005) the following chart is adapted from the work of Waters and Eschbach which lists the socioeconomic indicators by race in the United States.
Selected socioeconomic indicators for groups in the United
Labor family persons in force
Ethnic racial groups income 1989 poverty participation (a) (%)
White not Hispanic
American Indian (b)
Persons 16 years and over in labor force.
Includes Eskimos and Aleuts.
Source: U.S. Census of Population, 1990, Social and Economic
Characteristics CP-2-1, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing
Office. 1993; as cited in Waters and Eschbach (1995)
The pattern of inequality has emerged in different ways for different ethnic categories and this due to the various histories of the group. (Waters and Eschbach, 2005; paraphrased) Waters and Eschbach state that economic growth “was a primary engine for improving the economic status of both blacks and whites from the depression through the early 1970s. Decompositions of changes in black-white differences show that the lion’s share for the explanation for the narrowing of the wage gap for males is attributable to the narrowing in the education gap between blacks and whites, and to declines in the racial disparity in earnings as returns to schooling.” (1995) Further, “the economic gap between blacks and whites seems unlikely to close soon because the American economy seems to have stalled well short of the mark that would allow full equality.” (Water and Eschbach, 1995) the story about transformations concerning women is different from the story concerning the races even with black women who had “higher rates of labor force participation and employment than did white women.” (Waters and Eschbach, 1995) the economic gap between black and whites is stated by Waters and Eschbach (1995) “…to be unlikely to close soon the American economy seems to have stalled well short of the mark that would allow full equality.” (Waters and Eschbach, 1995)
STRUCTURAL INEQUALITY & DIVERSITY
ROLE of CORPORATE INFLUENCE in DECIDING the FATE of CHILDREN’S EDUCATION
Joel H. Spring writes in the work entitled: “Education and the Rise of the Corporate State” the fact that the school “…is and has been an instrument of social, economic and political control. It is an institution, which consciously plans to turn people into something. Within this framework the school must be viewed as an instrument of power.” (1972) According to Spring the school may be credited for the creation of an “institutional relationship which gives power to a social group to consciously shape the personality and goals of an entire generation.” (1972) Spring notes that since 1900 that it has been businessmen, political leaders and professional educators who have held the “power of schooling” in their hands and “who have been instrumental in the development of the modern corporate state…” As well.
II. SCHOOL’S ROLE in SOCIALIZATION
If one intends to grasp the “power of the school one must not confuse the learning of traditional academic subjects with the process of schooling.” (Spring, 1972) for indeed the role that the school plays in being the: “…major institution for socialization” is the importance assigned to the school. This process of socialization is stated to include “the individual’s relationship with the institution of the school. The quality of his relationships with his peers, and his place in the social structure of the school.” p.149 (Spring, 2002) Spring points out that the “major changes in education during this century were the result of a concern for the type and direction of socialization.” (1972) He also notes that inclusive in the discussions focused upon refinement of the school in its nature and relating to its power “of the school as a controlling institution were the factors of: (1) Grades; (2) assemblies; (3) differentiation of courses of study; (4) extracurricular activities; and (5) the school as a community.(Spring, 1972)
III. TWO DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS of CONTROL
There are two distinguishing facts concerning the control held by education: (1) Who controls the educational process? Spring notes that the shift was to: “…centralization of urban school boards and the concentration of power in the bands of the business and professional community…” during the latter part of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries.” (p.149) the latter part of the twentieth century was defined by a shift toward community control of schools only to find that this was difficult if not impossible because “of the conscious effort by groups at the beginning of the century to concentrate control of the schools in the hands of the business and social elite.” p.150 (Spring, 1972); and (2) the type or nature of power that the process of schooling prepares the individual to accept – Spring (1972) gives for example “radicals during the early part of the century claimed that schooling prepares the individual to accept the control of business and industry. It was claimed that habits of obedience and industriousness learned in the school resulted in the unquestioning acceptance and obedience to capitalist leaders. On the other hand, progressive leaders saw themselves creating an educational system which would prepare the individual to accept a system of cooperation and control by a meritocracy.” 150 (Spring, 1972) This type of process of preparation for control acceptance was also examples in the Southern U.S. states in “segregated schools…the socialization that was to result from segregated schools was designed to perpetuate a caste system and assure the domination of one racial group over another.” (Spring, 1972) it was not the subject matter of the lessons in these schools that was important in this role of socialization built instead it was the segregationist ‘rule-of-thumb’ that made educational provisions for Black students that was inferior due to their being held to be of “inferior quality” p.151 themselves. (Spring, 1972)
Spring relates that one of the first studies of importance in this area of study “…was conducted by a team of sociologists in a small town in Indiana in the 1940’s. The study, titled Elmstown’s Youth, explored the relationship between the social classes and adolescent life. One of the focuses of the study, of course, was the local high school.” (1972) Findings of the sociologists include that “the process of differentiation in the comprehensive high school reflected the social classes within the community. The community was divided into five social classes, with those established wealth in the first group, important business and professional leaders in the second group, small businessmen and minor professionals in the third group, millworkers and white collar clerks in the fourth group, and the lowest social class included unskilled and semiskilled workers and the unemployed.” (Spring, 1972) the sociologists further stated findings that the differentiation of courses the high school offered mirrored the divisions in the social classes of society in this small town. “Adolescents from social classes one, two and three dominated the college preparatory track, the general track drew the majority of its students from social classes three and four, and the commercial track received students primarily from the two lowest social classes.” (Spring, 1972)
IV. PROGRESSIVE REFORMERS
Progressive reformers wanted differentiation in studies for “meeting individual needs” but this had in reality perpetuated the “…social class lines and schooling people into their social places.” (Spring, 1972) School was found to “not only prepare for the acceptance of control by dominate elites and social structures” but to further “create a dependence on institutions and expertise.” (Spring, 1972; p.153) Learned in school is “that thinking, acting, dressing, playing, and creating can be placed on a linear scale and ranked and graded according to value. The school teaches sex, driving, problems in leisure time, and a whole host of related subjects. The concept of school preparing one for ‘worthy use of leisure time’ is an example of this situation.” (Spring, 1972) it is a cognitive jolt to realize that education has been pointedly this intrusive into the individual process of choice in its attempt to exert all control in terms of socialization of individuals into the proper level of society to which they are assigned. As stated by Spring “The expert establishes the standard of ‘proper’ leisure, then trains the individual to enjoy life.” (1972) it is certain that as noted by Spring (1972) that such a greatly institutional dependence has the potential to: “…freeze and deaden all human activity.” (1972)
Spring further relates of this type of institutional and expertise dependence: “…represents a form of alienation which goes far beyond anything suggested by Karl Marx in the nineteenth century. The triumph of the school in the twentieth century has resulted in the expansion of this concept of alienation. Technology and state capitalism still make work meaningless to the individual and crate a condition of alienation from the product of labor. The themes of control, social stratification, and institutional dependency are all finely interwoven.” (1972) Spring notes of ‘progressive education’ that the emphasis was on social adjustment to the extent that the “other goals of liberation and individualized instruction” are rendered meaningless. Because the school has taken over the entire responsibility for the complete and total development of the student, it has also assumed responsibility “for assuring that the child was shaped to fit into society.” (1972) Personality problems came to be defined: “in terms of social relationships” (1972; p.156) and Spring states that the work of Ellul writes:
Opposition to society, the lack of social adaptation, produces serious personality difficulties which lead to the loss of psychic equilibrium.” (Ellul, 1967; p.348) the most important factor in education therefore became social adjustment to restore the psychic balance. Ellul points out that this social adaptation was to a society that was neither perfect nor ideal. In fact as society becomes more technological and totalitarian, the problems of adaptation become more and more difficult. This leads to the further development of more refined techniques of adjustment and, makes socialization even more necessary. Therefore as technology advances, the burden of making people “happy” becomes more and more the responsibility of education. Paradoxically this creates the impression that education is becoming more humanistic. What looks like the apex of humanism is in fact the pinnacle of human submission: children are educated to become precisely what society expects of them. They must have social consciences that allow them to strive for the same ends as society sets for itself.” (Ellul, 1967; p.348)
Spring relates that one of the power sources of school during the twentieth century “has been the belief that education is the most humane and democratic form of social control.” (1972) This has appointed schools with the responsibility and the power to “shape and mold lives.” (1972) While “education for social control was certainly the result of a humanitarian and benevolent attitude…this “humanitarianism of social control was…accompanied by an attitude that negated any broad concept of freedom. While there was a belief that activity and participation were to be an integral part of education, this did not mean activity or participation were to be directed toward any goal selected by the students.” (Spring, 1972) While the use of education in social control might seem to be a reflection of a more democratic control form in truth democracy “as it pertains to personal choice becomes an illusion if freedom is reduced to acting in terms of social needs.” (Spring, 1972) in other words, a child might be taught to embrace the feeling of freedom while their lives are simultaneously under the control and direction of forces of an institutional nature. Spring states that: “well-functioning democracy becomes more possible in a society of aware slaves. At least they would know that freedom involves some form of individual direction.” (1972) Another word that has been “magical…in education” (Spring, 1972; p. 163) is the word ‘individualism’ which is assumed to always be somehow connected to democracy but in reality “individualization means using individual methods to assure that every student achieved the same goal.” (Spring, 1972; p. 164) Compulsory education laws increasing time amount in school in terms of hours of the day and in the number of required years to graduate “has brought a greater part of the population under institutional controls.” (Spring, 1972; p. 164) While schools have tended to nurture “only one type of personality” the result has been “the development of one dominant lifestyle.” Spring, 1972; 165) the school has nurtured the same type of personality that is needed by the corporate world to feed the ongoing of the corporation.
Spring relates that Erich Fromm rejected socialization in education and abhorred the idea of education “producing men who are ‘willing to do what is expected of them, men who will fit into the social machine without friction, who can be led without leaders, and who can be directed without any aim except the one to ‘make good.” (Fromm, 1960) Both Fromm and Elull expressed a pessimistic attitude to systems-analysis and the “new phenomenon…of the computer’s determining the model that will be used and the model’s being applied to social organizations and individuals.” (Spring, 1972) Spring states that in this framework “a predictive chart is constructed to show how the child can flow smoothly through the schools with his interests and aptitudes matched to appropriate courses that will lead to an appropriate job.” (p.169) Behavioral psychology is easily aligned with this framework of thought and according to Spring, this approach “does in fact turn man into a thing.” (1972; p. 169) Behavioral theory of human action has as its basis that “human actions are the result of stimulus-response conditioning and that all emotions are physically measurable, it provides a logical model that can be handled by the computer…” (p. 169) Socialization within the framework of behavioral psychology added to systems analysis “becomes a process of encouraging personalities that fit into the model. Like any institutional organization, certain behavioral patterns are required for this operation. A student showing unwillingness to operate within this context, such as refusing to follow direction on programmed learning machines, would have to be viewed as a deviant.” (Spring, 1972; p. 169)
The work of Soley (1995) entitled: “Leasing the Ivory Tower: The Corporate Takeover of Academic” relate that “Corporate, foundation, and tycoon money has had a major, deleterious impact on universities. Financial considerations have altered academic priorities, reduced the importance of teaching, degraded the integrity of academic journals, and determined what research is conducted at what universities. The social costs of this influence have been lower-quality education, reduction in academic freedom, and a covert transfer of resources from the public to the private sector.” (p.145) University priorities have been reversed through encouraging professors in abandoning the classroom for “research centers and laboratories…” (Soley, 1995; p.145) Soley relates that the more successful a university professor, the less time is actually spent in the classroom teaching students resulting in higher tuition costs for students “who are forced to help pay the salaries of professors who never teach.” (1995; p.145) Professors who are credited with cultivation of corporate connections receive “perks, promotion, tenure, and endowed professorships, and move up the university hierarchy. They determine whether other, younger professors will also get promoted and tenured.” (Soley, 1995; p. 146) Soley relates the likelihood that the biggest impact that funding by corporations has had on universities “has been the influence on professional ethics.” (1995; p.147) Soley relates a case study on the University of Florida, which reflects what has occurred at many universities to include the University of Georgia and Penn State. Soley states:
Florida, like other universities, radically increased its expenditures on research, de-emphasized undergraduate teaching, and expanded its Ph.D. programs between 1980 and 1991. In 1980, research expenditures represented 20% of Florida’s budget; by 1991, research expenditures accounted for 28.5%. The budget for research increased from $64.2 million in 1980 to $220 million in 1991. In contrast, the percentage of the University of Florida’s budget that was allocated to instruction actually declined during the same period, dropping from 33.3 to 29.7%, even though the amount allocated to education increased. As the percentage of the budget devoted to instruction dropped, so did the amount of time that professors spent teaching. By 1991, only one-fifth of the university’s faculty taught four courses per semester, the state mandated teaching load.” (Gale Research, 1994p. As cited in Soley, 1995; p. 148)
Teaching loads were produced for the professors who conducted research and for other service-related activities in initiatives that “provides a link between University researchers and industry and is designed to transfer new technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace.” (Soley, 1995; p. 149) New faculty were hired at the University of Florida to cover for these professors. While growth was experienced at the University of Florida and other such universities the funding for research failed to actually cover the costs. Resulting from university research has been “a downward spiral in instructional quality and an upward spiral in tuition at most universities, not just at Florida.” (Soley, 1995; p.152)
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia’s Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Katz, Michael B.; Stern, Mark J.; and Fader, Jamie J. (2005) Women and the Paradox of Economic Inequality in the Twentieth-Century Journal of Social History, Vol. 39, 2005.
Prather, Jane E. (2003) “When the Girls Move in: A Sociological Analysis of the Feminization of the Bank Teller’s Job,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 33, no. 4 (1971): 777-82; in Katz, Stern and Fader (2003).
Research Centers Directory, 18th ed. (Washington, D.C.: Gale Research, 1994), p. 1772.
Soley, Lawrence C. (1995) Leasing the Ivory Tower: The Corporate Takeover of Academia. South End, 1995.
Waters, Mary and Eschbach, Karl (1995) Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, 1995
Waters, Mary C. And Eschbach, Mary C. (1995) Immigration and Ethnic and Racial Inequality in the United States (1995); Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, 1995.
Wilkinson, Doris Y. (1995) Gender and Social Inequality: The Prevailing Significance Daedalus, Vol. 124, 1995
Structural Inequality & Diversity
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Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!