Sleep Questionnaire Instrument Analysis

Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ) Instrument Analysis

Research to evaluate interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients has been restricted by the lack of brief, inexpensive outcome measures (Richards, O’Sullivan, & Phillips, 2000). Usually the critically ill are given different medications that help them sleep. However, in many cases this is insufficient to achieve enough rest and sleep periods are generally fragmented and with decreased restrictiveness. Most researchers believe that a few days of partial sleep or even complete sleep deprivation in a healthy adult for brief periods is completely benign. However, for patients in critical care settings the effects of sleep deprivation can contribute to major complications.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Sleep Questionnaire Instrument Analysis
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Sleep is divided into two distinctive states, rapid eye movement (REM) and nonREM states. The former is defined by periods of episodic burst of rapid eye movements and the later (NREM) has a set of sub-stages that include for separate phases that can be identified through EEG activation. As an individual progress through the NREM cycles, each cycle last approximately eighty minutes each. Currently available techniques for measuring sleep include polysomnography (PSG), actigraphy, observation, and patient perception. PSG is the best tool for measurement and data collection on sleep, yet this requires expensive equipment and highly trained operators. Furthermore, it is especially challenging in a critical care setting because it takes over an hour to set up. Because this tool is so difficult to use in this setting, the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ) has been proposed as an effective proxy tool to collect data in critical care patients.

Description of the Instrument

The researchers who designed the RCSQ questionnaire were trying to find a valid alternative to the more comprehensive PSG tools since these instruments are simply not feasible in a critical care setting. There are five categories of information that the RCSQ tries to capture. These items are:

1. Sleep Depth

2. Falling Asleep

3. Number of Awakenings

4. Percent of Time Awake

5. Overall Quality of Sleep

The RCSQ items are constructed as visual analogs so that the patients could easily provide answers. To answer the questions the patients need only mark an “X” to the answer they are seeking. The patients’ place the “X” on a visual scale in which must the data point must be recorded by measuring the distance of the “X” in millimeters from the low end of the scale. The content included in these categories were constructed by a panel of experts as well as items that were identified in a literature review of Medline articles that were published within the range of 1976 to May of 1999 using the key word “sleep.” They also identified the most common sleep problems that patients in these settings are likely to encounter.

Psychometric Assessment

A pilot test was performed on the RCSQ from nine patients in critical care who also received a PSG test. The item on the questionnaire regarding light/deep sleep correlated significantly with the PSG sleep characteristic of percent stage 4 NREM (r=.59) and percent stage 3 NREM (r=.56). The item “A good night’s sleep/A bad night’s sleep correlated 0.64 for percent stage 2 and 0.55 for percent stage REM. The item “Fell asleep immediately/Never could fall asleep” was strongly associated with latency of sleep onset, although not statistically significant (r=.51, p=.07). With a sample size of only nine patients, the correlation must be ? .53 to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level (Richards, O’Sullivan, & Phillips, 2000). Thus with a larger sample size it is reasonable to suspect that latency question might be statistically significant as well.

Validity and Reliability Assessment

Although the preliminary data collected with the pilot study provided some insights that the scale could effectively achieve the objectives that it was intended for, the sample size was relatively small and the did not represent a good comparison with PSG data. Therefore a secondary and more comprehensive study was designed to include a bigger sample. In a private room of an eight-bed medical critical care unit, seventy men with the mean age of 65.81 agreed to participate in a new study. A Grass 16 Channel Electroencephalogram Machine (Grass Instrument Company, Quincy, Mass.) was used to collect a range of PSG data. Each subject was studied from approximately 10PM to 5AM and data from the RCSQ was collected as well during this time period.

The study found that most RCSQ items significantly correlated with their corresponding PSG measures, as well as correlated with the sleep efficiency index, the best overall indicator of sleep. However, latency to sleep onset was one factor that had a weak correlation between the RCSQ and the other measures. It is believed that this type of measurement, the VSH, may not be sensitive enough to capture accurate data for this measure. However, on the whole the RCSQ seem suited to serve as the proxy for a PSG as it was intended. There is more research that should be conducted to verify these findings, however it is reasonable to believe that this can be used as an effective proxy to study sleep in critically injured patients.


Richards, K., O’Sullivan, P., & Phillips, R. (2000). Measurements of Sleep in Critically Ill Patients. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 8(2), 131-140.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper