PICOT Analysis on Chronic Heart Failure
One may describe heart failure (HF) as a complicated medical condition which may arise due to functional or structural cardiac disorders capable of hindering ventricular capability of ejecting or filling blood. Chronic HF (CHF) represents a serious health issue. Its prevalence in America stands at over 5.8 million, while over 23 million individuals across the globe are affected by this problem. The mortality rate linked to HF is 40% in the initial diagnostic year, which reduces to 10% subsequently. Individuals most impacted by the condition lie in the age group of over 65 years. This age group is associated with rather high healthcare costs and high mortality and morbidity rates. HF patients get admitted to hospitals often and their re-hospitalization rates continually increase. In this paper, peer-reviewed articles will be employed for shedding light on the clinical issue, its diagnosis, patient care and the potential positive impact of nurse interventions on HF patient outcomes.
HF can surface because of LVSD (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) which largely arises on account of impairment in the left ventricle’s contraction. Diagnosed individuals possess a narrowed LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction). HF takes another form: as PEF (preserved ejection fraction) which is characterized by impairment in left ventricle relaxation and preserved or normal LVEF. HF patients may experience dyspnea with recumbency or with exertion. Other associated signs include dependent swelling, early satiety, swift tiredness and cough. HF has been related closely to hypertension, valvular heart disease, myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Lastly, the condition may be a secondary element of diseases not linked typically to LVSD (for instance, infiltrative disorders (like sarcoidiosis and amyloidosis), pericardial disease, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy).
HF-diagnosed individuals ought to be tested for LVEF, and the test ought to be repeatedly performed with modification in clinical situation when physical tests or patient history cannot easily explain it. Also, it ought to be tested six months following surgical revascularization (Nicklas et al. 2013).
Appropriate clinical evaluation will be able to identify patients that may display response to electro-physiological device implantation and pharmacologic therapy. Experts revealed that beta blockers, aldosterone inhibitors, and angiotensin-converting EIs (enzyme inhibitors) help decrease HF morbidity and mortality rates. They also indicate the potential of biventricular pacemakers and cardiac defibrillators in improving results among particular patients with reduced LVEF (Nicklas et al. 2013).
Healthcare professionals, including nurses, ought to aim at treating triggering/causal factors and decreasing cardiac workload. This may be achieved through approaches like oxygen delivery for relieving ischemia; the flow rate must depend on individual patient state and hospital policy. The maintenance of activity restrictions ought to be guided by the activity tolerance of patients. Nursing staff must constantly appraise and record electrocardiogram rhythm, mental health condition, vital signs, urine output, lung and heart sounds, and other indications of change. They are also tasked with administering small amounts of morphine intravenously for reducing venous return, anxiety, pain, preload, and myocardial oxygen usage. Diuretics may also be required for reducing blood volume and preload while digitalis may be needed for lowering heart rate and increasing contractility. Further, nurses must utilize vasopressors for supporting blood pressure and increasing contractility, besides after load-reducers for facilitating ventricular ejection and decreasing Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR). In case of patients with installed pulmonary arterial catheter, nurses must measure and record SVR, cardiac output pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, and pulmonary artery pressure.
Nursing staff must strive towards educating patients to make sure they identify all signs that indicate a need to seek medical assistance (e.g., increased breathlessness, pulse rhythm/rate changes, weight gain, reduced activity tolerance (or complete intolerance), peripheral edema, displaced apex, and gallop rhythm fatigue). Additionally, nurses need to familiarize patients with dietary restrictions, refer them (and their families) for CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) training, and educate them on emergency medical system activation in case any issue surfaces at home (Nicklas et al. 2013).
Patients must be made to realize that compliance with prescribed medicines will alleviate signs and prolong life. Their illness mustn’t trigger panic/anxiety attacks. Nursing professionals must guide them with regard to medication schedules and make them aware of potential medication side-effects.
When nurses note irregular heart rates, elevated blood pressure, sleep apnea, infection and diabetes which could aggravate HF signs, the lead doctor must be notified (Nicklas et al. 2013).
An improved grasp of HF is a sound means of avoiding complications, and improving chances of attaining overall success in treatment and follow-up.
Healthcare organizations are seeing over 1.8 million ER (emergency room) visits of late. Most US states have countless hospitals able to take care of HF patients. Health agencies report a greater number of elderly patients being admitted for HF-linked complications. Agencies also participate in studies on improving HF patient outcomes.
HF-specialized nurses are wholly committed to delivering holistic patient care to anybody diagnosed with stages A-D of HF. This may occur within all outpatient and inpatient contexts and fulfill patients’ chronic or acute requirements. HF-specialized nurses may offer personalized prevention guidelines and support systems to patients (Nicklas et al. 2013) and can discern families, population groups or communities more prone to developing HF.
To conclude, effective practice and timely HF detection can contribute to treatment success. Healthcare providers must strive to aid patients in identifying potential symptoms and signs. Another means to avert heart disease would be by emphasizing healthy living. Correct diagnosis, research and treatment can assist providers in taming the HF epidemic. Lastly, appropriate nursing practice and care can help achieve superior treatment outcomes.
Nicklas JM, Bleske BE, Van Harrison R, Hogikyan RV, Kwok Y, Chavey WE. (2013) Heart Failure: Clinical Problem and Management Issues. PubMed retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23402460
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!