Photosynthesis Lab Term Paper 4 pages

Photosynthesis Lab

This experiment was carried out in order to develop and understanding and appreciation of photosynthesis, the mechanism on which almost all of the internal energy needs of living organisms depends, and to measure the rate of photosynthesis and some of the factors influencing this rate. Segments of spinach leaf were placed in conditions that caused them to undergo photosynthesis in a controlled and observable environment, enabling the observation of the process and of influences upon the rate of reaction occurring within the spinach leaf in light of environmental changes. Specifically, this experiment measured the proximity of the spinach leaf segments to their light source and its impact on the rate of photosynthesis, with the initial assumption that the closer the leaf segments were to this light source, the faster the photosynthesis would occur. The experiment showed that the reverse was actually the case, and when the spinach leaf segments were moved closer to the light source the rate of photosynthesis was approximately 50% longer. Possible reasons for this result and methods for further experimentation are discussed.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Photosynthesis Lab Term Paper 4 pages
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay


Though human beings most if not all of the animal kingdom consists of heterotrophs — organisms that must eat things (typically other organisms) in order to survive — almost all life is ultimately dependent on the work of autotrophs — organisms that use sunlight and/or other environmental (that is, inorganic) sources (Kent, 2000). The most common form of autotrophy is photosynthesis, the process by which most plants convert sunlight into usable energy stored in the form of carbohydrates (Kent, 2000). Through a series of complex chemical steps, incoming sunlight is first converted to chemical energy, and then in a second reaction that is not itself light-dependent this chemical energy is used to create a carbohydrate — a simple sugar — which contains energy in the form of certain molecular bonds that can be broken to release this energy (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). Photosynthesizing plants make up the foundational level of any food chain; organisms higher on the chain must eat these plants and/or other organisms that have themselves eaten these plants in order to obtain the energy they need, and in this way the process of photosynthesis is vital to almost all life on the planet (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012).

This research set out to determine how the distance between plant matter and the light source it is using affects the rate of photosynthesis it achieves, utilizing a controlled environment in which spinach leaf segments are exposed to light and the chemical changes they undergo as a result of photosynthesis is indirectly measured. By keeping all other variables in the experiment consistent across two trials but by adjusting the space between the light source and the spinach leaf segments, the impact that this distance has on photosynthesis rates can be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that the closer the spinach leaf segments are to the light source the faster the photosynthesis reaction will happen, as more of the energy from the light source ought to reach the spinach leaf segments rather than being reflected or spreading into the environment surrounding the spinach leaf segments.

Materials and Methods

Procedure is found on pages 258 to 259 in Biology I: Molecular and Cells Laboratory Manual (Dalton, 2012).


“1” represents the first trial, with an average time-to-surface of 282.4 seconds at a distance of seven centimeters from the light source.

“2” represents the second trial, with an average time-to-surface of 422.9 seconds at a distance of four centimeters from the light source.


An autotroph is an organism that uses sunlight and/or other inorganic features of its environment to create/convert the energy it needs in order to survive, such as most plants including the spinach that was used in this experiment (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). A heterotroph, on the other hand, is an organism that needs to consume other organisms in order to meet its internal energy needs; humans are one obvious example of autotrophs, as is almost every member (perhaps every member) of the animal kingdom (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). In autotrophs that photosynthesize, such as the spinach used in the experiment, the photosynthesis occurs in spherical cytoplasmic organelles called chloroplasts located in the cells of the plant an typically especially abundant in the leaves — broad, flat structures meant to catch a great deal (proportionally speaking) of sunlight (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). The general reaction that occurs in photosynthesis is the taking in of sunlight, which is converted into chemical energy and is used — along with the raw materials of six molecules of carbon dioxide and twelve molecules of water to produce one molecule of sugar and six molecules of oxygen gas:

sunlight + 6CO2 + 12H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Dalton, 2012).

This experiment worked by first voiding all of the air pockets in the leaf segments and filling them with sodium bicarbonate, which will be utilized by the plant in photosynthesis and will lead to the production of sugars and oxygen gas — gas that will fill the voids in the air pockets left by the sodium bicarbonate as it is reacted and make the leaf segments buoyant in their solution again. When the leaf segments have become buoyant enough to rise to the top of the solution, enough oxygen has been produced by photosynthesis to yield this observable result (Dalton, 2012). The overall results of the experiment clearly show that the hypothesis was incorrect, as moving the spinach leaf segments closer to the light source did not only fail to increase the rate of photosynthesis, but actually appeared to significantly decrease the rate of this reaction. The controls on this experiment were not stringent enough to make this statement with true certainty, however; it is possible that increased heat slowed the reactions or affected the density of the solution. Further experimentation with more controlled temperatures is called for.


Dalton, K. (2012). Biology I Molecular and Cells: Lecture Guide and Laboratory Manual 3rd Edition. Virginia Beach, VA: Academx Publishing Services, Inc.

Kent, M. (2000). Advanced Biology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper