Psychological Effects of Divorce on Children and Co-Parental Relations
Today, it is not possible for people to not take into account the considerable outcomes and consequences of divorce. According to social scientists, the ever increasing rates of parents ending their marriages is not only hurting the society but also upsetting and destroying the lives of children. Not only does divorce devastates the family life but also impacts the attainment of education, solidity of job, income potential, physical health, emotional well-being, alcohol and drug addiction and offensive activities (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Millions of children all over the world suffer overwhelmingly when their parents end their marriages. Research shows that the outcomes of divorce go on with a child into his/her adulthood. Not only the adolescence of the individual is affected but it also crushes the next generation of children also. It is observed that the effects of divorce are mostly certain, severe, lifelong and critical. Thus, there is a need to do something about it to protect the affected children. The consequences of divorce in long-term devastates the nation as well because no nation can progress with psychologically-affected adults. Therefore, in order to reverse the effects of divorce, steps are to be taken to bring a cultural shift in the attitudes of the people. There is a dire need to change the perspective of the people regarding divorce who still consider it as an “OK” process. People must understand and realize that it is not ok for parents to end their marital bond based on silly issues (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Why must we condemn divorce?
The dilemma, plight and troubles faced and experienced by the children of divorce are enough to condemn divorce at every level. Their conditions crystal-clearly point towards the continuous effects of divorce which are reflected into every aspect of their lives. The children of divorced parents become the victims of abuse and sufferers of ignorance and abandonment. They show signs of more problems related to their health, behavior, personality and emotions. They are also found to be involved in illicit and illegal activities and drug abuse. Not only this, such children commit suicides when they cannot endure the outcomes of divorce (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Children of divorced parents also exhibit a weakened learning capacity. Their performance in the classrooms is really poor if compared with their fellow students. They display diminished reading and writing skills, spell poorly and are weak in mathematical calculations. Records show that children belonging to families where the parents have divorced also have higher dropout rates and mostly fail to attain graduation degree from colleges (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Divorce also is seen to affect the primary household of a child by reducing its income. It affects the whole system of the house by severely diminishing the potential of household members to build up money for surviving in the present and securing the future. The drop in income of the families who were well-off and affluent before the taking place of divorce has been recorded to be as much as 50%. The divorced families are not much into religious worship and spirituality. This is the reason why there are more chances of divorces because religion is not prevalent in such families and thus, health, happiness, longer marriages and better family life are not prayed for (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Divorce has distinct devastating effects. Research in this area demonstrates astonishingly regrettable results by showing how it weakens the relationship between a child and his parents on a permanent basis. Divorce leads a child to disparaging ways of conflict management. Such children also have an inferior sense of self. Children of divorce reveal an earlier loss of virginity. The dilemma does not end here. They also demonstrate signs of “more cohabitation, higher expectations of divorce, higher divorce rates later in life, and less desire to have children” (Fagan & Rector, 2000). Their future family life becomes a critical one as they tend to break their families in the same way they saw their parents doing.
Therefore, if societies where the rates of divorce are exceedingly higher, do not take immediate steps to put a stop to divorce then this dilemma would “continue the downward spiral into social decay” (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Stressors of the Divorce Process
An extraordinarily large number of children live in divorces families. Regrettably, the marital dissolution brings complex consequences along with it, particularly for the ill-fated children. This unlucky event not only changes the finances of the family and the parenting practices but also results in increased parental conflict and erosion of the important relationships. Divorce is also associated with weakened status of children’s psychological well being which results in their lower achievement academically (Potter, August 2010).
Research shows that children demonstrate different responses to their parents’ divorce. Their reactions and attitudes depend on the circumstances such as their age and mental/maturity level at the time of divorce. However, divorce has a negative impact on the children’s outcomes if observed generally. For researchers, divorce is not an event but a process (Potter, August 2010). A few decades ago, the concept of divorce was renewed by considering it “a process extending over time that involved multiple changes and potential challenges for children, rather than as a single event” (Kelly & Emery, October 2003). The number, cruelty and time of separation and divorce-engendered traumatic causes differ from childto child and family to family. The duration of a divorce to happen also varies. The temporary and lasting responses and consequences of children are affected by various stressors such as “the nature of the initial separation, parental adjustment and resources, parental conflict and cooperation, repartnering of one or both parents, stability of economic resources, and children’s own individual resources” (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
These various unbearable stressors mentioned above get in the way of children’s abilities to deal with and muddle through with the divorce process. Thus, children have higher risks of psychological difficulties with the passage of time.
A significant number of children and adolescents experience the early period subsequent to the separation of their parents quite traumatically. Various children become stressed as they had seen violence and elevated quarrels and arguments in the marriage. On the other hand, most of the children respond to divorce with grief, nervousness, fury, distress, disbelief and anxiety as they are not emotionally prepared for the separation of their parents. Usually, such response towards the family crisis lasts only for a period of 1-2 years. To make matters worse, parents mostly do not inform their children about the status of their marriage (separation or divorce). This untold fact consequently complicates the attempts of children to deal with the major changes following separation. They find themselves alone to struggle with the painful suffering and it becomes hard for them to interpret the significance of such a distressed event in their lives. As a result, they tend to become isolated, emotionally confused and cognitively perplexed. Furthermore, the majority of parents are unsuccessful in communicating and deciding about helpful supervision and access preparations for the children. They also fail to communicate the immediate and long-term influential “changes in family structure, living arrangements, and parent-child relationships” (Kelly & Emery, October 2003) with the victims of divorce i.e. children.
According to a study regarding the parent child communications about divorce, just 5% of the children said that they knew all about the divorce of their parents. On the other hand, 23% of the children said they did not know about the approaching change in the family structure and 45% informed that they were explained about the divorce in 1-2 abrupt sentences (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
The trauma of children gets evens more intensified when one parent departs abruptly. Generally, it is the father who leaves the household. In cases when temporary court orders are absent, most children do not have the chance to meet their nonresident parents for a long period of time i.e. For weeks or months. The children who are emotionally attached with the parent who leaves, such an abrupt change in the family is really difficult, upsetting and agonizing (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Unrelenting and constant conflict between parents next to separation and divorce also becomes a major stressor for children. Children, who belong to families where parents have separated or divorced, experience high conflicts during their parents’ marriage. Some couples lessen their differences once they separate or divorce. However, some of the couples continue to quarrel even after divorce which greatly affects the children. Therefore, some children continue to muddle through persisitent conflicts after divorce. On the other hand, some experience considerably lesser incidents of quarrel and argument. Postdivorce conflicts are reported to inflict more unfavorable effects on the children as compared to conflicts that occur in the families where marriage is still undissolved. When parents use their children as an object to show their anger, it becomes quite stressful for the children. Children become more depressed and anxious when parents ask them to carry aggressive messages to the other or when one parent belittles or insults the other parent in front of them (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Weakened Parenting after Divorce
Another factor that causes children to become stressed is when parenting they receive is inept, clumsy and incompetent. Extreme marital conflicts have severe effects when it comes to the adjustment of children. Mothers, in specific, tend to become less affectionate and more negligent when there are harsh agreements during marriage. They are reprted to become more ruthless in maintaining discipline in the house. Fathers, on the other hand, withdraw from their children and involve themselves in more interfering activities. In addition to this, when after divorce a child has to live with a parent who is disheartened, miserable and upset, it becomes difficult for that child to adjust emotionally, socially, and academically. The traumatic condition, anger and stress of the children make it a harder task for the depressed single parents to continue and maintain practices required for effective parenting (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Failure of Significant Relationships
Children of divorced parents find it difficult to maintain long-term and unending relationships. These important relationships include close friends and family members (new and extended). It also becomes particularly difficult for the children to be in close contact with their nonresident parents who are usually fathers. This results in children viewing their father as a diminished character in the story of their lives. Distance also erodes the closeness of father-child association (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
The time a child spends with his/her nonresident parent is significantly reduced due to a number of factors that include barriers of psychology, interparental relationship and institution. This barrier is often put by the fathers themselves, who lessen their communication or stop contacting their children after divorce because of their own made-up restrictions.
Some fathers already have a minimal involvement with their children even during marriage so being apart from the children is not a big problem for them. On the other hand, some fathers tend to be so involved in their new partners after divorce that they forget about their previous lives even their biological children. Some fathers find it really hard to cope up with the biting reality of being distant from their children and ultimately lose contact to diminish any association (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
It is a common tradition that a parent has to leave the household after divorce and has to move somewhere else. When a parent relocates at a distance of more than 100 miles, continued and persistent contact between the father-child relations becomes impossible as more time is required to travel long distances and more money is needed too. Consequently, the parent-child association starts to erode especially when the child/children is/are very young. When a father remarries, it becomes difficult for him to balance his life justifiably with the children of his old and new marriage (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
In most cases, the behavior of mothers creates barriers between children and their fathers. Mothers start functioning as gatekeepers after divorce watching keenly the involvement of father with the children after divorce. The mothers who act as the custodians of children tend to interfere between children and father and are also found to disrupt visiting. They become outrageous when the father contacts become high and fail to make their children adjusted to the circumstances. Sometimes, it is the children themselves who limit communications and distance themselves from their nonresident parents. The causes may be both appropriate and inappropriate. Most children stop involving with a parent if they had experienced violence when the parents weren’t separated. Children who are frightened of the abusive parent do not like to visit him/her. However, this bold choice of avoiding any contact is considered a healthy response from children (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
The standard of living and income for custodial parents and children substantially reduces with the divorce. Consequently, this reduction in finances and economic deterioration may prove as a significant stressor for majority of children. When children observe upsetting and troublemaking variations and disruptions in residential arrangements, school and friends, they become quite stressful (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Divorce results in a continuous experience for children as they are introduced to a persistent series of changes and disorders in family. Their emotional side of the personality affects significantly when they are introduced to new social and sexual partners by their parents.
Repartnering or remarrying can be perplexing for children if it occurs immediately after the divorce (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Divorce = Risk for Children
Divorce reportedly raises the adjustment risks for children. Children of divorce have been considerably noticed to have problems related to their behaviors. If compared with children belonging to married families, children of divorce demonstrate social, internal and academic problems. Though children in normal families also face serious problems both psychologically and socially psychological and social problems, but the majorities of children who have more problems belong to divorced families. They generally have disorders in conduct, behaviors that are antisocial and uncooperative, and problems withtheir guardians or custodian parent. They show poor academic performance and abilities and score much lesser in tests as compared to children of married couples. Furthermore, parents who have separated tend to provide less monetary sources and show uninterest towards the children’s educational well being which makes it difficult for the children to complete their studies. In most cases, the consequence is the dropping out from school (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Remarriage does not reduce the risk of behavioral problems for the children of divorce. Living in stepfamilies increases the chances of mental, behavioral and academic problems for the divorce-affected children. They fail to tie intimate knots with their step-relatives. It has also been reported that the children of divorce marry earlier and are mostly not satisfied with their marriage or spouse. In addition to this, they are also more likely to end their marriages (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
The divorced parents and their adolescent children also have a less warm, unfriendly and unsupportive relationship. One of the main reasons of this less affectionate association is the insulting and humiliating behavior of the parent towards the other parent which makes the children angry. Thus, they are likely to have a bitter relationship with the demeaning parent (Kelly & Emery, October 2003).
Effects on Academic Achievemnt/Outcomes
It is wrong to consider divorce as a deliberate attempt to dissolve marriage. Instead, it must be regarded as a process that gives birth to instability, insecurity and unsteadiness in many important lives. As already disussed, divorced families have lower annual incomes and the material resources are inadequate. Moreover, the quality and practices of parenting is usually quite lower and undependable. In some cases, the separation of parents makes the children prematurely independent. Consequently, there is a break down in the household rules and regulations and parents stop parenting and start befriending. One of the other outcomes of divorce is the relocation of residence along with the change in school. The ability of children to learn is thus diminished with the custodial arrangements. Another important outcome that upset the children’s lives is their poor academic achievement following separation and then relocation and changing of the school. They become less attentive in school and find it difficult to concentrate on the lessons. Such children have poor psychosocial health (a major component for educational achievement) which brings them lower ranks (Potter, August 2010).
How does Divorce Affect Younger Children?
Divorce brings drastic changes in the lives of young children. In some cases, for instance, divorce changes the financial standing of a parent or both, generally of mothers. It also makes the children accessible a parent or both parents. Divorce also brings significant changes in the emotional state and behavior of the parents. It is a crystal-clear fact that older children are not much dependent on their parents but younger children are; who need their parents for every little thing. The whole world of the younger children changes with the changes in the family context. Recent studies show that it is not the marital status of the parents that affects the outcomes of children. Instead, the outcomes of children are impacted significantly due to other family variables including educational level of the mother, income, despair, and parenting quality (Leon, July 2003).
The quality of mother-child interaction is also affected with the maternal strain following divorce. This inaffectionate behavior of mother is the cause of many behavioral problems among younger children. Mothers do not support the children and despite interacting in a loving way with the children, tend to be negative towards them. This results in more behavioral problems in younger children who are already fighting with the stress of divorce (Leon, July 2003).
The Effects of Divorce on the Cognitive Development of Young Children
How Children Understand Divorce?
The children’s development is significantly influenced with the stressful series of events before and after divorce, mainly due to their cognitive processing of the events. Children in preschool have self-centered and inconsiderate thoughts which means that they are careless of the feelings of others. Their llimited ability to take the perspectives of others often makes them blame themselves. They think that they are the reason of their parents’ divorce. It becomes difficult for them to understand the causes of their parents’ divorce. More than 100 children from 60 divorced families were studied and the result suggested that younger children find themselves as the sole reason of their parents’ divorce. On the other hand, older children regard one parent as the person responsible of the divorce (Leon, July 2003).
Effects on Cognitive Performance
Symbolic representation, reading and language skills are some of the cognitive abilities that children develop during their preschool years.However, these and other related cognitive skills tend to disrupt with the occurrence of the divorce process and are likely to be affected. The family characteristics and processes including the living standard and parent-child relationship are associated with the cognitive performance of children. However, divorce also affects and upsets the said characteristics thereby putting an impact on the children’s cognitive abilities (Leon, July 2003).
The arguments, differences and quarrels between married couples bring negativities in the outcomes of children. Interparental conflict is regarded by psychologists as a risk factor for children. When 50 divorced mothers with young children were studied, it was found out that their communication with their previous husbands has turned out to be a difficult process. Only some mothers reported that they had a better communication with their previous husbands. Thus, when there is greater aggression between divorced parents, there is a high risk for children to become more problematic. In some cases, where lower interparental conflict was observed and the parents change few partners, children tend to have lesser behavior problems (Leon, July 2003).
Social Support Can Help
Parenting stress and negative outcomes it brings for children may be alleviated with the social support. High parental stress is very common during the process of divoorce. In such a situation, social support can significantly important and helpful for both parents and children. Social support serves as a protective shield for children. Members from extended family and day-care providers can be really helpful in providing social help to the members of divorced families (Leon, July 2003).
The Outcomes Vary Due to Child Characteristics
Children’s characteristics, for instance sexual characteristics and nature, are also likely to have a great influence on the outcomes of children. It has been found out that adjustment was one of the domain in which the older children did not show any gender differences. However, girls were found to have lesser conduct problems as compared to boys (Leon, July 2003).
Children who have complicated and thorny temperaments experience increased stress after the parental divorce. They are less adaptable to the new circumstances even when they are given full support by their custodians. On the other hand, when children with uncomplicated and unproblematic temperament are provided high levels of support after the divorce, they demonstrate moderate stress and are much easily adaptable to the changed situation of their lives. This clearly shows that it is difficult for children with difficult temperaments to manage stress as compared to the children who have easy-going attitude (Leon, July 2003).
It is not only the children who are affected by the trauma of divorce. Both mother and father also get familiarized with distinctive parenting roles following separation. It is often the mother, who gets the custody of the children and thus, has to act as the main physical custodian.Past studies reflect the mothers’ experience as the custodian in which they have expressed how difficult it was for them to be the sole parent to look after the children. Their remarks clearly indicate how difficult single parenthood is. The parenting responsibilities overwhelm the female parent after the divorce. There are two attributes that are significant to the increased level of parenting tension. Firstly, the parent who has the physical custody of the children is responsible for managing household and carrying out instrumental caretaking tasks. On the other hand, the noncustodial parent is responsible for getting children participate and involve in social and recreational activities. Secondly, the majorities of nonresident fathers have little or no communication with their children. Such fathers have a lower level of involvement in activities involving their children. Divorced, nonresident fathers also get frustrated as they have no important role in controlling and observing what is happening in their children’s lives. They think of themselves as less capable parents. Conversely, mothers experience an augmented parenting strain after divorce (Madden-Derdich, Leonard & Christopher, August 1999).
The financial standard is also different for both mothers and fathers after a divorce. Research clearly indicates that it is mainly the female parent whose economic conditions worsen with the passage of time as compared to the male parent after divorce. Generally, women experience a drop in their standard of living. However, for men, it usually remains the same or increases. Divorced men usually have satisfactory financial situations and do not report a significant drop in their financial resources after the end of their marriage (Madden-Derdich, Leonard & Christopher, August 1999).
In some cases, many divorced parents decide to do co-parenting so that their children don’t have to spend an abnormal childhood. Co-parenting can thus be defined as a mutual partnership to carry out the “the complex interpersonal task of adults sharing parenting responsibilities” (Whiteside, January 1998). Joint parenting is really important to maintain a happy marriage. It therefore means that joint parenting is a mutual responsibility as long as both the parents are ready to share parenting responsibilities and tasks in one form or another. It is a tpical belief among spouses that their marital problems are rigorous and it is impossible to work them out. Consequently, they blindly follow this belief and thus, arrange lives that gradually become more and more parallel and isolated. People tend to think really negatively regarding their partner and this perception has turned out to be more international, unwavering, and offensive. Severe conflicts are signified when there is a lot of denigration, disrespect, suspiciousness among the couple. In the absence of trust, respect, humor, encouragement and noncynical listening, it is impossible for a couple to remain united (Whiteside, January 1998).
Hence, there are a lot of divorcing couples who reach a point where they are not able to work mutually and constructively. For them, it is almost impossible and paradoxical to be together and work towards the betterment of the family and children. However, as it is typical in marriage, separated couples also differ greatly when it comes to put aside the conflicts. They have varied ways of demonstrating angry feelings. They also have different manners of confronting differences. Not only this, there is also a variation in their ways of balancing the constructive and off-putting communications in their relationship. It has been found out that most couples who have divorced for a span of two years particularly experience incongruities, stress, and lack of sympathy towards each other (Whiteside, January 1998).
To cut a long story short, parenting repeatedly consists of disagreements about child development, education and rearing. It becomes a much difficult situation to cope with when both parents have high concerns regarding the betterment of child/children. It becomes really difficult to parent jointly with the aim of managing the household consistently as compared to carry out parenting responsibilities as a single parent. It is important to note here that it is not the frequency of disagreement that matters. What matters most is “the degree to which disagreement is imbued with unresolved emotional issues, the manner of expression of disagreement, parents’ ability to come to resolution, and the degree to which conflicts are outweighed by positive exchanges between parents” (Whiteside, January 1998).
Role of the Non-resident Parent
The rates of divorce all around the world are increasing at a faster pace. In addition to this, nonmarital childbearing has also become a common thing, particularly in the western part of the world. Thus, nonresident fathering has become a common form of parenting as a trend. It has been estimated that about 50% of children in United States alone, “will live in a household without their biological fathers at some point in their childhood” (Sobolewski & King, December 2005). This is rather a critical situation that affects the children’s well-being tremendously as they have to live apart from their father. However, this does not mean at all that if a father is not living in the same household where his children live, he has no role to play in his children’s life. A very large number of nonresident fathers have strong ties and communication with their children even if they are living apart. It has also been found out in a recent study that maintainance of an active presence by fathers in their children’s lives helps in strengthening their bond and benefits children both in short-term and long-term (Sobolewski & King, December 2005).
Despite all the mentioned facts, nonresident fathers face a major problem of maintaining an important parenting action i.e. they cannot live with their children. This is the reason why they have difficulty in nurturing an intimate relationship, friendliness and positive linkage with their offsprings. There is, however, probably a chance that the father’s involvement in other areas of his children’s life would be facilitated. It has also been found out that superior quality of father-child relationship is associated with the contact among them. There is always a likelihood that more visitations by a father closely link him with his children and they share a close bond, trust and affectionate feelings when involved in joint activities. Research also shows that children who had no or very little contact with their fathers experienced the worst form of father-child relationship as compared to children who were in close or modest contact levels with their fathers (Sobolewski & King, December 2005).
It is evident that coparenting in a cooperating way is infrequent and unusual. However, cooperative coparenting can strengthen the bonds between nonresident fathers and their children. Mutual coparenting also has the propensity to increase regular contact, superior relationship quality and better parenting behaviors. All these results can bring better and advantageous outcomes for children. Thus, a positive coparental relationship has benefits that assist a nonresident father’s involvement in his children’s lives (Sobolewski & King, December 2005).
Nevertheless, it is not easy for noncustodial or nonresident fathers to live apart from their children particularly when their primary attachment is directed towards their children. After divorce, such fathers mostly experience a substantial emotional, disturbing and poignant hardship. Astonishingly, the overall level of adjustment of fathers is significantly lower than that of mothers after divorce. Also, the divorced fathers face a higher risk of suicide. Their mental strength and ability to cope with the stress following divorce and separation from children is really low. They also experience a number of long-term stress-related illnesses including sleeplessness, reduced liveliness as well as mental health problems. Noncustodial fathers fear that divorce will consequently separate their children from them forever and affect their predivorce relationship. Thus, in the presence of children, the parent who stays with them experiences less tragedy than the noncustodian parent. The custodian parents usually spend a similar life as before divorce with fewer changes in their circumstances and living mode. They do not have the feeling of loneliness, insecurity, anxiousness and helplessness when dealing with their children. On the other hand, the noncustodial divorced parents particularly fathers experience drastic effects of divorce on their mental well-being including, feelings of loss, sorrow, unhappiness, vulnerability, lonesomeness, despair, indifference, insufficiency and ineptitude. Physically, as well, divorced noncustodial fathers lose weight, start or increase drinking, have difficulties in sleeping and drinking. Moreover, they experience nerverelated eye and dental problems as well as high BP (Kurk, Spring 2010).
The attachment between a child and a parent is based upon their daily involvement. For noncustodial fathers, it is really important to keep up and sustain a relationship with their children that is healthier and more momentous (Kurk, Spring 2010).
As already discussed mothers are mostly the custodial parents of children after divorce. They continue to be the main parent, live with their children and get to see them daily. Thus, it becomes really easy for them to be able to fulfill their parental responsibilities continuously without any lasting affect of the divorce. On the other hand, it becomes difficult for the fathers as noncustodial parents to perform their parental role persistently. The gender differences explain the situation in a helpful manner. It has been found out that divorced mothers remain involve themselves in parenting even if they are not given the custody of their children. In contrast to this, a majority of noncustodial fathers do not participate in carrying out parental tasks and responsibilities. Without a doubt, the mothers’ parental functioning is linked “with the number of years they were divorced, the mother’s age, and the number of children they had. The longer they were divorced, the older they were, and the more children they had, the fewer parental functions they performed” (Baum, Spring 2003).
Some fathers are unsuccessful in maintaining a meaningful relationship with their children after divorce. The main reasons of this failure of contact and communication are sometimes the uninterestedness from the father’s side, personality limitations linked with egotism, vanity and selfishness, or weak father-child attachments. Sometimes, maternal attitudes and involvement as the gatekeeper also limits the involvement of fathers in their children’s lives. Maternal hurt and anger related to the memories of marriage and divorce also play a key role in determining the father’s visitation frequency and participation in children-related activities. On the other hand, cooperative coparenting brings fruitful outcomes for children as joint planning and parental support means a lot (Kelly, March 2007).
Unfortunately, divorce is turning out to be a gradually more of a life experience for many couples all over the world. Thus, it is the need of the time that both legal and mental health professionals must foster positive postdivorce co-parental relationships among the couples. Many studies were carried out in this regard and the results show that the greatest risk for weakened coparental relationships is for those large families where the couples are less educated (Arditti & Kelly, January 1994).
It is also important for the state officials to promote effective marriage-education and develop programs for the prevention of divorce. There is also a need to end “the legal status of “no fault” divorce for parents who have children under the age of 18″ (Fagan & Rector, 2000). Societies all over the world must teach the core principles of maintenance of marriage to the couples. The message that “marriage is the best environment in which to raise healthy, happy children who can achieve their potential, and the family is the most important institution for social well-being” (Fagan & Rector, 2000) should be spread throughout so that people could start pondering over it.
Children suffer when their parents divorce. For some children, this suffering remains with them till the end damagaing their psychological well-being. It is important to note here that physical abuse is not as much damaging as psychological abuse is. Children’s educational experience is also hindered by divorce as it negatively affects both learning and achievement. Divorce also brings economic consequences that are considerablr negative for the related families. With the breakup of the family, the custodian parent has to carry out the tasks of two parents and it becomes difficult for him or her to support the family. As a consequence, the household income decreases with a greater risk of poverty (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
The dissolving of the relationship between parents hurts many children whose own capacity of having trustworthy, deep and intimate relationships becomes more fragile and weak. The impact divorce on home life is so severe that neglected children of divorced families strongly endeavor as adults to build up a home of their own and to be positive towards the well-being of their own children. Thus, it is not the parents only who divorce each other; they also divorce their children if seen from other perspective (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Thus, it is crystal clear that divorce is not only bad for society but it is extremely dangerous for the children too. It not only deteriorates the significance of relationships; but also weakens societies, towns, and the nation. The effects of divorce are transcendental and “contribute to the all-too- evident cycle of social decay” (Fagan & Rector, 2000). It is the need of the time that the states work towards changing the existing laws so that the impact of divorce on children could be reduced. They should specifically initiate programs for pro-marriage education and mentoring. It is also the responsibility of the state governments to establish such programs that can “provide young people, dating couples, and married couples with the information and tools necessary to build and maintain strong marriages” (Fagan & Rector, 2000). This is really important to educate the couples because education is the major tool that can help the troubled couples to find a solution for their problems and consequently save their marriage.
To cut a long story short, divorce inflicts its ill effects not only on the children but also demolishes the functioning of society’s 5 major institutions i.e. The family, worship place, educational institutions, marketplace, and the nation. It is to be remembered that if the family is to be considered as the building block of society then it is founded on the basis of marriage. Thus, everyone must work towards saving this sacred institution so that it doesn’t become weaker (Fagan & Rector, 2000).
Arditti, J.A., & Kelly, M. (January 1994). Fathers’ Perspectives of Their Co-parental Relationships Postdivorce: Implications for Family Practice and Legal Reform. Family Relations, 43, 61-67.
Baum, N. (Spring 2003). Divorce Process Variables and the Co-parental Relationship and Parental Role Fulfillment of Divorced Parents. Family Process, 42, 117-131.
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2000, October). The Effects of Divorce on America. World and I, 15. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002376571
Kelly, J.B. (March 2007). Children’s Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical And Clinical Research. Family Process,46, 35-52.
Kelly, J.B., & Emery, R.E. (October 2003). Children’s Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk And Resilience Perspectives. Family Relations, 352-362.
Kurk, E. (Spring 2010). Parental and Social Institutional Responsibilities to Children’s Needs in The Divorce Transition: Fathers’ Perspectives. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 18, 159-178.
Leon, K. (July 2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children’s Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of The Research. Family Relations, 52, 258-270.
Potter, D. (August 2010). Psychosocial Well-Being and the Relationship between Divorce and Children’s Academic Achievement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(4), 933-946.
Sobolewski, J.M., & King, V. (December 2005). The Importance of the Coparental Relationship for Nonresident Fathers’ Ties to Children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1196-1212.
Whiteside, M. (January 1998). The Parental Alliance Following Divorce: An Overview. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 24, 03-24.
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Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!