Diabetes and Drug Treatments
TYPE II DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS
Type I Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 result from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. Subsequent shortage of insulin translates to increased urine and blood glucose. The developed world is associated with increasingly variant type I diabetes with a large cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic blindness. The link is based on an increased dementia and cognitive dysfunction risk through disease processes of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The complications are inclusive of sexual dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans, and frequent infections (Jones, et al., 2012).
Type II Diabetes
The classic diabetes symptoms include polyuria (frequent urination), increased thirst, increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. Alternative symptoms commonly presented in the diagnosis include histories of blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent vaginal infections, peripheral neuropathy, and itchiness (Barnett, 2012). However, many people lack symptoms in the initial years and while the diagnosis is presented to routine testing. People suffering from type II diabetes mellitus rarely present hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states that are conditions of high blood sugar linked to low blood pressure and decreased the level of consciousness (Thomas, 2015).
Gestational diabetes is seen in pregnancies and gestation periods. The gestational diabetes impacts on how the cells utilize sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes leads to high blood sugar affecting a pregnancy and baby’s health. The scope of gestational diabetes includes blood sugar returning to normal after delivery. Gestational diabetes infects the ten-year-shorter life expectancies. This is mainly due to the scope of complications that are associated with risks of cardiovascular diseases of including ischemic stroke and heart disease (Pereira, 2013).
Juvenile diabetes involves short-acting insulin action through an onset of between 30 minutes and peak action of 4 hours. The intermediate action of insulin onsets in 2 hours. Long-acting insulin is given at bedtime. The action onset is roughly 1 to 2 hours with a sustained action of 24 hours. Juvenile diabetes occurs when beta cells produce insufficient insulin resulting in eventual insulin resistance. Insulin resistance linked to the inabilities of cells to respond adequately to normal insulin levels primarily occurs in the liver, fat tissue, and muscles. The liver shows insulin’s normal suppression of glucose release. However, the insulin resistance setting in the liver is inappropriately released through glucose to the blood (Ezrin, & Kowalski, 2011).
Diabetes type II
Diabetes mellitus type II is defined as one of the metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar or hyperglycemia in contexts of the relative lack of insulin and insulin resistance. The occurrence contrasts to diabetes mellitus type I as there is the absolute absence of insulin resulting from the breakdown of islet cells within a pancreas. Classic symptoms involve frequent urination, constant hunger, and excess thirst. Type II diabetes comprises 90% of diabetes cases where 10% of them are due to gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus type I. Type II diabetes was initially managed through dietary changes and an increment in exercise.
The threshold for diabetes diagnosis is based on relationships between results of fasting glucose, HbA1c or glucose tolerance tests and complications including retinal problems. A random or fasting blood sugar is a preferred approach for glucose tolerance tests where there are convenient approaches to people (Jones, et al., 2012). HbA1c is based on an advantageous way of fasting without a requirement of the stable disadvantage of tests against costly measurements of blood glucose. Proper preparation and administration of the insulin drug is a fundamental to the treatment of diabetes. Evidence for the dietary change benefits is limited to high intake of green leafy vegetables and limited consumption of sugary drinks (Thomas, 2015).
The long-term impact of diabetes on patients is frequent complications with opportunistic diseases. The insulin resistance proportion versus beta cell dysfunction is different in terms of individuals where there is a primary insulin resistance leading to minor insulin secretion defect. The slight insulin resistance coupled with insulin secretion lack is a critical point of reference (Thomas, 2015).
Short-term impact of diabetes on patients includes shortness of breath and blurred vision. The type II diabetes onset can be prevented or delayed by regular exercise and proper nutrition. Intensive lifestyle measures reduce risk by a half. Benefits of exercise occur irrespective of an individual’s weight subsequent loss or initial weight.
In conclusion, the type II diabetes management focuses on various lifestyle interventions that lower cardiovascular risk factors while maintaining blood glucose levels within a normal range. Blood glucose allows for self-monitoring among different persons with type II diabetes undergoing new diagnosed as used together with education. However, the self-monitoring benefits, in this case, use multi-dose insulin. The measurement of blood levels is done to approve assessment of urine levels. Such aspects allow for validation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, microalbuminuria, and high cholesterol through improving people’s life expectancy.
Barnett, A. (2012). Type II Diabetes. New York: OUP Oxford.
Ezrin, C. & Kowalski, R. (2011). The Type 2 Diabetes Diet Book, Fourth Edition. McGraw Hill Professional
Jones, R. M. et al., (2012). New Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes: Small Molecule Approaches. New York: Royal Society of Chemistry
Pereira, M. A. (2013). Nutrition and Type II Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention. New York: CRC Press.
Thomas, M. (2015). Understanding Type II Diabetes: Fewer Highs – Fewer Lows – Better Health. New York: Exisle Publishing.
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