Hip Hop Dance History
There are many changes that take place in societies and most of the changes take place due to the natures of the societies. Some of the changes are viewed to be new, but they are often revival of old traditions, and then it is very difficult to decide when the change really took place. Hip hop dance is one such matter and it started to be noticed only in the early 70s, and in that respect it is a new dance, but it also gave a freedom to all parts of societies to dance according to their desires. Thus it is very difficult to say that it is a new dance as self-expression is a part and parcel of the living of every society.
Hip hop may be viewed as a culture and is often used to refer to commercial rap music, but hip-hop is not only music. It is loved by the American ghetto youth who claim that it is their method of self-expression and use hip hop to rise over their physical situations. The culture of hip hop has its roots based on truth, self-determination, courage and pride. This is the reason why it has grown to have its impact on almost every part of the world. (Hip-hop History) From its initial days in the U.S., the music is being played in projects and certain underground clubs, but, now it has achieved a profile that has led to include it in the 1992 presidential debates over Sister Soljah. In the 20th Century Fox movie, Bulworth, there is Warren Beatty playing a Senator who berates his opponents using rap. Hip hop, it would seem, has become a part of our lives. (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt)
Hip-hop had started to grow from the early 1970’s in New York City, but its various elements, called break dance and graffiti were seen even earlier towards the end of the 1960’s. Some persons even trace rap back towards the spoken word poetry that occurred towards the end of the 1960’s. There are others who even back towards the ancient African societies who boasted about griots, and these were the men and women of the group who were walking containers of their people’s history. They also linked the different stories and histories of the group through talk and music. (Hip-hop History) According to information available from one source, the origins of this phenomenon are from Jamaica of the 1940’s. By the period of the 1960’s, it was common sight to see a truck fitted with sound equipment parked at the end of a street corner, playing American rhythm as well as blues records in order to entertain people in the neighborhood. Some of these DJs for these programs were Prince Buster, Coxson Dodd and Duke Reid. (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt)
By the 70’s this phenomenon had moved over to the U.S., especially in the Farragut Projects in Brooklyn at New York. Some of these initial DJs involved were Maboya, Plummer and Kool DJ D, and they mostly played disco music. Another of those initial figures, Kool Herc, came to the States from Jamaica and had settled at Bronx with his sound system which he named as “the Herculords.” Against the other figures that played disco music, Kool Herc concentrated his attention on rhythm and blues as well as funk records. He also had another innovation and that was to play only the “break,” or that of the musical material which was between the verses of a song. He also constantly kept repeating that break again and again. To achieve this, he used two turntables which were mounted with the same record. This was later termed as “break-beat deejaying.” (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt)
This led to the people around to start strange, acrobatic twisting dance routines in tune with these episodes and those dances came to be known as “break dances.” Kool Herc started getting too many invitations and this led him to hire others to be the master of ceremonies of these parties. In addition to the music, this person would converse with the crowd between the songs to make the party rocking. This was the initial start of rapping. DJ Hollywood was one of the initial MC’s at Kool Herc’s parties and he had the practice of using rhyming verses in his rap. One of these verses was inclusive of the words ‘hip hop’. This has been lately used interchangeably to define the music of rap as well as the culture of those who attended Kool Herc’s parties. (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt) In the beginning, the creator of music or the DJ was the most important individual in the rap music world, but then the music industry saw dollar signs coming from the direct efforts of MCs, or masters of ceremonies, like Kurtis Blow and “Love Bug” Starski. Then the MCs were known as “rappers” and the music was being called “rap.” Soon the appreciators felt that rapping was superior to the art of DJing, and rappers became the kings and queens of the music. (Hip-hop History)
Afrika Bambaataa, TAKI 183, Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash, VIC 156, Pete DJ Jones, Kool DJ Herc, DJ Hollywood, Eddie Cheeba, ‘Love Bug’ Starski, Kurtis Blow, CORNBREAD and COOL EARL, Cold Crush Brothers, The Last Poets, Run DMC, the Fat Boys and Rock Steady Crew” are a few of the most famous names. There are many other important and unsung pioneers of hip-hop. The music and dance are very popular and used in most of the campuses, where there are also a lot of developments which are taking place along various divergent lines. Hip-hop music was started in part by Afrika Bambaataa, who is also called the Godfather of the Hip-Hop culture. He began to disk jockey in the early part of the 1970’s with wax records, and in them mixed all types of music, though the most famous was funk along with European electronic music. He went on and started the Universal Zulu Nation. Another pioneer, Grandmaster Flash started the turntable technique that everybody now knows as the scratch. The experts would organize music among crowds in parks, at block parties and at other places by playing the breakdown parts of funk songs, and mixing different songs together on turntablesso which ensured that the music never stopped. Along with the expert was the MC, or “master of ceremonies” who spoke in a manner to hype the crowd and praise the expert. (Hip-hop History)
Afrika Bambaata had participated in many initial battles, or competitions between that of the DJs and MCs. There had to be rapping in them, but these battles were finally decided on who had the more fascinating lot of collection of breaks to play on. Afrika Bambatta had breaks drawn from several genres of music, inclusive of the “rock, rhythm & blues, mambo, German disco and calypso.” (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt) This is a unique element of hip hop, which includes “found sounds.” This may also be inclusive of recorded samples of music by various other groups in addition to voices or ambient sounds and has led to legal action when the groups involved had failed to provide proper credit to their sources. (Classified Hip-Hop or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt)
Hip hop has four sub-divisons, and these are popularly called elements. These elements are: dance, which is also called breaking or break dance, graffiti which is also known as writing, rapping and DJing. But these four elements grew at various times and each has their own peculiar history, though all are united under the roof of hip-hop culture. Rap music has progressed at the fastest of all the elements and can claim to have developed several sub-genres. While music developed the other elements of hip hop, graffiti and dance progressed at their own speed. One popular type of hip-hop dance was called break dance, and this developed out of a need for the youth to express themselves and prove their capacity in a creative and non-destructive manner. This led many persons, who would have been involved in gang or street activity to show their frustrations by means of the art of a dance that was once considered to be aggressive and poetic. (Hip-hop History)
Break dance was derived from several dance styles and included elements of Brazil’s capoeira, other types of martial arts, and was on occasions combined with other hip-hop styles such as locking and popping. There were crews like the Rock Steady Crew, who emerged and “combated” other crews on the dance floor. This elevated the dance to an art form having classic moves like the “2 step, the Airtrack, the headspin, The Glide” and several others. Krump was derived from clown dancing in the new millennium that is after 2000. (Hip-hop History) Graffiti is also known as writing, and is not dance. It originated as an underground urban art which was boldly being displayed in public places, generally on the sides of buildings or walls. This was an avenue for citizens to make political and social commentary, and even for gangs to mark their territory. Folks would mark their areas with “tags” like FRANK 207, TAKI 183 and several others. Finally the art of tagging developed into a full-blown art form, and produced beautiful mural art to cover trains and buildings. (Hip-hop History)
All the basic dances of hip hop have their individual and unique histories and stories. There is a common misconception which is that hip hop dancing has deep roots in the African rituals or ceremonies as well as culture. In truth, hip hop is much more of an American product. This position will help provide some sort of background that can be used as a guide to the history of hip hop dancing. The situation is not the same as hip hop music. The first basic dance for hip hop is locking. This started quite some time back in 1970, and then Don Campbellock was studying in a high school in the Los Angeles area and he was not known as a great dancer. The truth is he usually ended up unsuccessful when he tried to learn the popular party dances of that time. In the case of locking, what he was trying to do was a party dance called the “funky chicken” though this is not the same that we learn as children. When Don tried to do the funky chicken, he would “freeze up” in a particular pose all the time. People who had watched him dancing commented that he had “locked up.” (Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing)
Thus the dance came to be called as “Locking.” After many years of performing this dance, Don and many others started a crew that was called “The Lockers” though the name has now changed to “The Original Lockers.” Every person in the crew has their own style of locking. Locking has developed into a really dynamic dance. The dance involves lot of poses and “freezes,” which are not the same as bboying freezes. The movements are thrown into the middle of a set of fluid moves such as apple jacks, wrist rolls, and Leo walks, which-a-ways, back slaps, scooby-doos, Uncle Sam points and other moves. All movements are to emphasize upon the Funk music that is being danced to. An example of this is holding a throwback on a long horn note, then picking back up with the help of wrist rolls and points when the drums were able to kick back in. (Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing)
Another form of dance is bboying and as it is known today its roots are far and widespread. The initial forms of bboying started in 1972 at that of the Kool DJ Hercs house and block parties. The style of uprocking and that means basic footwork when standing derives from the New York City gang dances during the 60’s. Uprocking really extended from copying of the gang dances into its own type of dancing in Brooklyn; and that is the reason why it has come to be regarded as “Brooklyn Uprock” or that of “Brooklyn Rocking.” In Uprock, it seems like a mock fight, where the person performing it has to drop down to a crouching pose on the 4th beat of each measure. From Uprocking, there was the development of another form of standing footwork which is known as top rocking. Top rocking has its own form of footwork and there the person doing it does not have to drop down, and it can be done solo.
In the case of Brooklyn it should only be performed when someone is doing Brooklyn. Most of the rocking that is done by boys and girls is actually top rocking. This led to a situation when people initiated to hit the floor and that came to be called “Ground Rocking.” Ground Rocking has a series of step techniques which are called 2-step, 4-step and 6-step. There are also CCs, swipes, and switchbacks as well. Another element that developed around the same time was freeze. The simplest freeze is the baby freeze. Over a period of time freezes have become more physically demanding and problematic and an example is the “Hollowback.” The features of power moves like constant headspin were not included till 1982. A popper and member of the Electric Boogaloos, Suga Pop, then visited New York City and he was meeting Mr. Wiggles, Frosty Freeze, and other members of the RockSteady Crew. At that time, the dances of popping and bboying were exchanged between coasts. New York City already had a form of popping called Electric Boogie, but Suga Pop brought the technique and term to the east coast. When Suga Pop went back to the Los Angeles Area from New York, bboying increased on the west coast, and people took it to the next level by means of windmills, adding flares, features from capoeira, and other increasingly dangerous gymnastics moves. (Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing)
Next form of dancing is called Popping and this is without doubt has most complexity element of all the hip-hop dance styles. Popping is used as a general term for all the more than 26 various styles of popping. Some of these dance styles have been formed for the usage of only one crew or one particular area of a town. According to most experts popping started around 1976 or 1977 by Boogaloo Sam, who was a dancer and who originated from Fresno, California. This information makes popping the youngest of all the dance forms. However, there are other information’s of the initial forms of popping, hitting and boogaloo from the 1965 till 1967 around San Jose, Oakland and San Francisco. Why most accredit Boogaloo Sam with “founding” the dance form of popping is not that he first danced in that form, but he was really the first to define it as “the constant tensing and relaxing of muscles while dancing to create a sharp, surging stop/jolt effect” (Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing)
On the east coast, there is a style of popping known as Electric Boogie, which consists of tutting, hitting, gliding and waving. This was originated and corrected in the meeting mentioned earlier between Suga Pop and members of Rock Steady. There are also many misconceptions regarding popping and some of these are for “Moonwalk.” This name was given by Michael Jackson. This is actually known as “backslide” and was initially peformed on Television by a dancer — Bill Baily, who was tap dancer. This was done again by Creepin Cid of the Electric Boogaloos on Soul Train in 1977 or 1978. The moonwalk is a particular kind of walk that shows that the person performing it is walking on the moon. (Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing)
The dance form of Krump came from the movement of clowns and was started by Thomas Johnson. This is somewhat like a break dance battle. The dance has a lot of energy and that has led to its being shown in videos like “I’m really hot” and “Hey mama.” The dance was started off by the founder in Compton in 1992 as a method of helping the black community to get over the troubles that came due to the Rodney King riots. He was personally involved in legal troubles when he was a teenager and thus understood the significance of providing young kids a method of entertainment which was otherwise not available as the government hardly provided any funds. This led to the starting of Hip-Hop Clowns & Entertainment Inc., and that was a source of entertainment to children’s church picnics, birthday parties, and parades. (What Is Krump Dancing?)
The show here was inclusive of the traditional clown factors of magic tricks, balloons, mime, etc., but there was also the addition of happy, crazy dance moves encouraged by the boyhood heroes Thomas Johnson, Michael Jackson and B-boys. All dances took place while being in clown attire, inclusive of the red nose and rainbow afro wig. This became a business and was advertised by Johnson changing into his clown dress after work and driving around in his Mustang while at the same time blasting hip-hop beats and stopping by the street corners in order to dance for the kids. He was popularly called the Hip-hop Clown, and soon the shows became so widely popular that he had to resign from his daily job and hire people from the neighborhood to perform for the company. The popularity of clowning increased and groups or crews came up all over California. This gave an opportunity to Johnson organize ‘battle areas’. These were competitions similar to the New York break dance battles which were popular in the 1980’s.
The most popular of these, Tommy the Clown’s Battle Zone series, were attended by around 4,000 people, and gave away winners belts, bragging rights and recognition. This also resulted in a new aggressive, confrontational style, which was lately known as krumping. In this form, at times clown dancers paint their faces like that of the clowns, and Krumpers form stunningly beautiful designs which remind one of the ceremonial face art which is witnessed in several traditional African societies. The result was more that of a warrior-like and dramatic dance form that has evolved. The world of clown and krump dance led to a passionate documentary called “Krumped” from director and photographer David LaChappelle and this was premiered at this year’s Sundance Film Festival and then opened all throughout the U.S. In major theaters and received critical acclaim. Further along with that of the face-painting part of the dance, the energy and grace of the dance falls back to long-buried roots in the African tribal dance, even though that had not been known to the Los Angeles youth who had started the dance form. Today krump is a craze in parts of Europe, Japan and all over the world. (What Is Krump Dancing?)
The documentary Krumped showed a crowd of viewers around a small group of dancers. All the dancers can be seen to be bobbing, moving, and nodding to the music, but only one individual, a young man wearing casual baggy jeans along with a white T-shirt, is shown to be dancing. He demonstrates a raw physicality, with his arms and torso relating to the emphatic rhythm of a hip-hop tune, and he stares boldly at the audience around him. He has syncopated, rapid-fire freestyle flickers between the abstract movements and that of the pantomime, but there is never a loss of the beat. If movement could be words, this would be poetry. (Getting krumped: the changing race of hip hop)
Even while looking at the hip-hop background, where there is apparently no real love of money or in relation to sexism and that of gratuitous violence, as witnessed in the commercial promoters of hip hop music, homosexuality remains a taboo. This can be seen in the otherwise socially conscious rapper Common letting it rips with reference to “faggots.” There was a different scene in 1998, when Juba Kalamka spent his last $30 on the 10th anniversary screening of filmmaker Marlon Riggs’ “Tongues Untied” at the Castro Theatre. He was not expecting an epiphany, but that was what he received at a post-screening poetry reading. At that time, when Stanford University student Tim’m West started to recite erotic rhymes regarding being a gay black man trying to find his voice in hip-hop culture. The experiences of West were similar to that of Kalamka, and before long, the two were found to be exchanging ideas as well as phone numbers. This was the reason for the start of Oakland’s Deep Dickollective — D/DC. (Hip to homo-hop, Oakland’s D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow-raising rhyme)
This is a rap and spoken- word crew at the vanguard of homo-hop, which is a global movement of gay hip-hop MCs and fans who are encouraged to claim their space in a genre which is most commonly linked with homophobia and anti-gay lyrics. D/DC now has a current lineup including Kalamka, Ralowe Ampu, West, and Phillip Atiba Goff. The group is now part of a Bay Area homo-hop scene which is inclusive of artists like Hanifah Wallida, Doug E. And Marcus Rene Van. The stories of these artists are quite interesting. For example, Kalamka, 31, started to perform while attending Chicago State University as that of an art education major. He also married, had a child there and later divorced and then felt that he was bisexual before moving to the Bay Area in 1998 as a writer for Anything That Moves magazine. (Hip to homo-hop, Oakland’s D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow-raising rhyme) It is clear that hip hop practitioners have clear ethics and preferences, but as is known in many cases, the reason for not looking for money is that one is not likely to get any. The ethics of this dance can be said to be freedom for individuals to dance the way they like. Other factors are temporary and apply to individual crews.
Thus while hip-hop dance and fashion are trying to become more pervasive, some are of the opinion that there is also a downside. This trend has enabled the path for several dancers, and at the same time it also has fostered and promoted more suggestive dance moves. But tit could be said that in relation to whether it has improved upon or worsened popular culture, hip hop has invaded it. There are also clear indications from it that there are effects on culture for good or evil. Some hip hop is racist in their themes, while others are sexist. At the same time, there are also many hip hop musicians who concentrate on such issues like social inequity and the dangers of heroin use. At the same time, hip hop is not only music. Hip-hop dance is becoming the soul of pop culture as never before, and steadily moving from the street corners and music videos towards usage in the fitness centers, dance studios as well as television shows.
Basic History of Hip-hop Dancing. 4 January 2005. Retrieved at http://www.dance.net/read.html?postid=2812173&replies=33&page=1. Accessed 20 October, 2005
Chonin, Neva. Hip to homo-hop, Oakland’s D/DC fuses gay and black identities with eyebrow- raising rhyme. San Francisco Chronicle. December 16, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2001/12/16/PK231895.DTLAccessed 18 October, 2005
Classified Hip-Hop Or I wanna blow up like Marilyn Monroe’s skirt. Retrieved at http://joan.simmons.edu/~morrow/hiphopbib.html. Accessed 18 October, 2005
Hip-hop History. Retrieved at http://rap.about.com/od/hiphophistory/p/hiphophistory.htm. Accessed 18 October, 2005
Liu, Marian. Hip-hop dance fever. Knight Ridder Newspaper. 11 February, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.azstarnet.com/dailystar/relatedarticles/9301.php. Accessed 20 October, 2005
Paggett, Tanisha. Getting krumped: the changing race of hip hop. Dance Magazine. July, 2004.
Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1083/is_7_78/ai_n6145252. Accessed 20 October, 2005
What Is Krump Dancing? Retrieved at http://rap.about.com/od/hiphopdance/p/krump.htm. Accessed 18 October, 2005
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!